Background Paper for Session 1: Principles and Practices of Multi-stakeholder Partnerships for Sustainable Development – Guidance and Oversight from UN Decisions

By Minu Hemmati, MSP Institute and Felix Dodds, Tellus Institute

 March 2017 – for delivery on April 4, 2017

 Contents

  1. 1.0 Purpose of the Paper
  2. 2.0 Definitions
  3. 3.0 2003: CSD 11 Decision and ECOSOC 61 Resolution on Partnerships

3.1 ECOSOC 61 Resolution

3.2. Other UN Decisions on Partnerships

  1. 4.0 Main Principles in the Decisions
  2. 5.0 Updating Existing Intergovernmental Decisions

5.1. Some Suggestions Trying to Bring Together the Approaches to Partnerships

5.2. Possible Additions Aiming to Enhance Implementation

Annex 1 Global Compact Principles

Annex 2 Background Information and Resources

1.      Purpose of the Paper

“It was further proposed that there might be a role for the Friends of Governance for Sustainable Development in engaging and coordinating various stakeholders in their engagement on the question of the accountability and transparency of MSPs.” (UNDESA, 2016)

The above was a request from the Summary of the UNDESA Expert Group Meeting “Multi-stakeholder partnerships on implementing the 2030 Agenda: Improving accountability and transparency”.

The present paper is meant to support discussions about multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs) for sustainable development in the context of United Nations’ work towards implementing key agreements relating to sustainable development, namely the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Samoa Pathway, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the New Urban Agenda and The Future We Want.

The paper reviews decisions on multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development, and discusses possible updates and additions that governments may wish to consider in 2017. Such updates and additions are meant to strengthen the guidance provided by the key principles that should govern MSPs’ contributions to sustainable development agreements, and support effective implementation, and enhance learning from MSP activities.

2. Definitions

Given the multiple definitions of ‘partnerships’ that exist and some confusion that the discourse on partnerships has seen over the years, it seems useful to provide some suggested definitions of key terms and concepts in the context of multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development for discussion:

Stakeholders are those who have an interest in a particular decision, either as individuals or representatives of a group. This includes people who influence a decision, or can influence it, as well as those affected by it (Hemmati 2002).

Multi-stakeholder Partnerships (MSPs) for sustainable development are specific commitments and contributions, undertaken together by various partners intended to support the implementation of transformation towards sustainable development and help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and other relevant sustainable development agreements.

 

Examples of multi-stakeholder partnerships for sustainable development principally range from small collaborative projects of individual organisations and institutions that address local challenges to international partnerships tackling global issues. Goals and activities can centre on capacity building and knowledge exchange, market development, technological innovation, or standard setting. Many of the international initiatives operate local or national centres that implement a global standard, and network amongst each other to share lessons learned and support each other’s work.

The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is an example of a global standard. It aims to promote the open and accountable management of natural resources. The partnership supports EITI implementation, for example in Germany (D-EITI), and promotes dialogue and transparency in the German raw materials sector through a range of activities, including producing regular reports about the German raw materials sector and the key financial flows between the state and businesses; communicating findings to the general public; and thus achieving a unique level of data transparency and establishing the basis for more accountability

D-EITI’s governance includes a multi-stakeholder group (MSG), comprising 15 representatives from the public and private sectors and civil society. The MSG is chaired by a representative of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi). Decisions are adopted on the basis of consensus.

Multi-stakeholder Partnerships for sustainable development are by definition using a multi-stakeholder approach: They are inclusive in nature, involving all relevant actors in their area of work. MSPs can be arranged among any combination of partners, including governments, regional groups, local authorities, non-governmental actors, international institutions, private sector partners and other relevant stakeholders. All partners should be involved in the development of the MSP from an early stage, so that it is genuinely participatory in approach. Yet as partnerships evolve, there should also be opportunities for additional partners to join on an equal basis. 

 

EcoAgriculture Partners is a catalyst, pursuing a multi-pronged approach to make an impact at the landscape, national, regional and international level. Each of these scales reinforces the others as they work to mainstream integrated landscape management around the world – supporting biodiversity conservation while maximizing agricultural yield and enhancing social development. EcoAgriculture Partners is an NGO registered in the USA, and works with partners from multiple stakeholders in three main areas, i.e.:

1.       Improving Landscape Management: working with development groups, community-based organizations, and government agencies to train leaders, develop plans and strategies, and build coalitions and governance platforms to improve landscape management performance.

2.       Leading Policy and Market Change: connecting landscape leaders with their local and national governments to spur constructive dialogue, and serving as a trusted adviser to decision makers, providing cutting-edge analysis that guides sound policy choices. EcoAgriculture Partners helps private and public investors see the long-term value of investments in integrated landscapes.

3.       Creating Partnerships for Action and Advocacy: catalyzing global initiatives, leading and managing dynamic teams, and stewarding critical new connections between governments, research institutions and landscapes, to maximize the impact of everyone’s efforts.

EcoAgricuture Partners also serves as the secretariat for Landscapes for People Food and Nature, a multi-stakeholder initiative with partners from governments, intergovernmental organizations, civil society organizations and business initiatives.

The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management – SAICM

Adopted by the First International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM1) on 6 February 2006 in Dubai, the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) is a policy framework to promote chemical safety around the world.

SAICM was developed by a multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral Preparatory Committee and supports the achievement of the 2020 goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development. SAICM overall objective is the achievement of the sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle so that by the year 2020, chemicals are produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health.

SAICM is distinguished by its comprehensive scope; ambitious “2020 goal” for sound chemicals management; multi-stakeholder and multi-sectoral character; endorsement at the highest political levels; emphasis on chemical safety as a sustainable issue; provision for resource mobilization; and formal endorsement or recognition by the governing bodies of key intergovernmental organizations.

The SAICM Secretariat is hosted by UNEP in Geneva. 

 

Major Groups: Agenda 21 and consequent UN agreements recognized that achieving sustainable development would require the active participation of all sectors of society and all types of people. Agenda 21, adopted at the Earth Summit in 1992, drew upon this sentiment and formalized nine sectors of society as the main channels through which broad participation would be facilitated in UN activities related to sustainable development. These are officially called “Major Groups” and include the following sectors: Women; Children and Youth; Indigenous Peoples; Non-Governmental Organizations; Local Authorities; Workers and Trade Unions; Business and Industry; Scientific and Technological Community, and Farmers. (UN, 1992)

 Other Stakeholders: Two decades after the Earth Summit, the importance of effectively engaging these nine sectors of society was reaffirmed by the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), in 2012. Its outcome document “The Future We Want” highlights the role that Major Groups can play in pursuing sustainable societies for future generations. In addition, governments invited other stakeholders, including local communities, volunteer groups and foundations, migrants and families, as well as older persons and persons with disabilities, to participate in UN processes related to sustainable development, which can be done through close collaboration with the Major Groups.  (UN, 2012)

There is a lot of confusion around MSPs and Private Public Partnerships (PPPs). Private Public Partnerships are principally contractual arrangements between single or several public agencies (federal, state or local) and single or several private sector entities. Through such arrangements, the skills and assets of each sector (public and private) are shared, in delivering a service or facility for the use of the general public. Other stakeholders might be sub-contractors in a PPP.

 

Private Public Partnerships – ‘Other Stakeholders’

One example might be women’s groups being sub-contracted to do an evaluation of the role
that gender might play in an infrastructure project.

The World Bank has identified this with their new Gender Equality, Poverty Reduction and Inclusive Growth Strategy. They identified five areas that need to be considered in PPPs. These are:

1.       Identifying gender-specific needs that infrastructure services can meet

2.       Eliminating gender biases from legal frameworks governing PPPs

3.       Paying close attention to the stakeholder consultation process

4.       Including a gender-specific affordability analysis.

5.       Embedding gender considerations in the output specifications for the private sector 

Voluntary Initiatives: The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was an action-oriented conference, where all stakeholders, including Major Groups, the UN System/IGOs, and Member States were invited to make individual commitments focusing on delivering concrete results for sustainable development on a voluntary basis. It has been estimated that of these there have been over 1400 voluntary initiatives with a financial commitment of around US$636 million (Seth, 2013).

While one of the key principles of partnerships is that they be voluntary, voluntary initiatives are not necessarily partnerships. Voluntary initiatives are activities or contributions made by single governments or organisations, or groups of them, towards a certain goal, and above and beyond legally binding or UN-agreed commitments.

Most recently we see more calls for voluntary actions and initiatives in the context of the upcoming Oceans Conference in June 2017.

 Voluntary Initiatives

Two examples from Rio+20 include:

1.       Microsoft pledging to become carbon neutral, and

2.       Eight multilateral development banks (MDBs) to commit US$175 million toward sustainable transportation. (Stakeholder Forum, 2013)

 

3. CSD 11 and ECOSOC 2003 Decision on Partnerships

3.1. ECOSOC 61 Resolution 2003

The UN Commission on Sustainable Development at its 11th Session in 2003 considered partnerships in the context of implementing Agenda 21 (1992), the Programme for Further Implementation of Agenda 21), and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (2002), and agreed the CSD 11 decision on partnerships (June 2003).

In July 2003, ECOSOC reviewed the CSD-11 decision on partnerships and made the decision on partnerships (ECOSOC 2003/61 text, para 21-24) quoted below.

ECOSOC Resolution 2003/61

The Economic and Social Council, (…)

  1. Recalls that the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation designated the Commission to serve as the focal point for discussion on partnerships that promote sustainable development, and reiterates that partnerships, as voluntary multi-stakeholder initiatives, contribute to the implementation of intergovernmental commitments in Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. They are a complement to, but not intended to substitute for, those commitments;
  2. Stresses that partnerships in the context of the World Summit on Sustainable Development process and its follow-up should be developed and implemented in accordance with the following criteria and guidelines, taking note in that regard of the preliminary work undertaken on partnerships during the preparatory process for the Summit, including the Bali guiding principles, and General Assembly resolution 56/76 of 11 December 2001:

(a) Partnerships are voluntary initiatives undertaken by Governments and relevant stakeholders, such as major groups and institutional stakeholders;

(b) Partnerships should contribute to the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, and should not divert resources from the commitments contained in those agreements;

(c) Partnerships are not intended to substitute commitments made by Governments but to supplement the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation;

(d) Partnerships should add concrete value to the implementation process and should be new, that is, they should not merely reflect existing arrangements;

(e) Partnerships should bear in mind the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development in their design and implementation;

(f) Partnerships should be based on predictable and sustained resources for their implementation, should include the mobilization of new resources and, where relevant, should result in the transfer of technology to, and capacity-building in, developing countries;

(g) It is desirable that partnerships have a sectoral and geographical balance;

(h) Partnerships should be designed and implemented in a transparent and accountable manner. In that regard, they should exchange relevant information with Governments and other relevant stakeholders;

(i) Partnerships should be publicly announced with the intention of sharing the specific contribution that they make to the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation;

(j) Partnerships should be consistent with national laws and national strategies for the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, as well as the priorities of countries where their implementation takes place;

(k) The leading partner of a partnership initiative should inform the national focal point for sustainable development of the involved country/countries about the initiation and progress of the partnership, and all partners should bear in mind the guidance provided by Governments;

(l) The involvement of international institutions and United Nations funds, programmes and agencies in partnerships should conform to intergovernmentally agreed mandates and should not lead to the diversion to partnerships of resources otherwise allocated for their mandated programmes;

  1. Decides that providing information and reporting by partnerships registered with the Commission should be transparent, participatory and credible, taking into account the following elements:

(a) The registration of partnerships should be voluntary and should be based on written reporting to the Commission, taking into account the provisions specified above. Reporting by partnerships should focus on their contribution to the implementation of the goals, objectives and targets of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation;

(b) Partnerships should submit a regular report, preferably at least on a biennial basis;

(c) The Secretariat is requested to make information available on partnerships, including their reports, through a database accessible to all interested parties, including through the Commission web site and other means;

(d) The Secretariat is requested to produce a summary report containing synthesized information on partnerships for consideration by the Commission, in accordance with its programme and organization of work, noting the particular relevance of such reports in review years;

(e) The Commission, during review years, should discuss the contribution of partnerships towards supporting the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation with a view to sharing lessons learned and best practices, identifying and addressing problems, gaps and constraints, and providing further guidance, including on reporting, during policy years, as necessary;

  1. Calls for activities aimed at strengthening partnerships in the context of the Summit process and its follow-up and facilitating new ones, including through such initiatives as partnerships fairs and learning centres, mindful of the importance of sharing information on existing activities, particularly across the United Nations system.

3.2. Other UN Decisions on Partnerships 

 UN Decisions

2002 (January) UNGA Resolution (56/76) Towards global partnership https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/490/02/PDF/N0149002.pdf?OpenElement

2002 (July) Bali Guiding Principles https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/dsd/dsd_aofw_par/par_mand_baliguidprin.shtml

2003 (June) UN Commission Decision on Partnerships for Sustainable Development including criteria and guidelines http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/partnerships/partnerships_for_sd.pdf

2004 (February) UNGA Resolution (58/129) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/502/32/PDF/N0350232.pdf?OpenElement

2005 (December) UNGA resolution (60/215) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/500/50/PDF/N0550050.pdf?OpenElement

2007 (December) UNGA resolution (62/211) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/476/43/PDF/N0747643.pdf?OpenElement

2010 (March) UNGA Resolution (64/223) Towards global partnerships http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/64/223

2012 (March) UNGA resolution (66/223 Towards global partnerships http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=%20A/RES/66/223

2014 (February) UNGA resolution (68/234) Towards global partnerships: a principle-based approach to enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/234

2015 (December) UNGA resolution 70/224 Towards global partnerships: a principle-based approach to enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/224

 

4. Main Principles in the Decisions

Summarizing the existing decisions, the main principles that have been agreed to should guide partnerships and their engagement with the UN system, are as follows:

Voluntary nature: actors and stakeholders come together in partnerships at their free will, and with everyone benefitting in ways they desire and need

  • Transparency: public announcements, registration, regular reporting
  • Credibility: putting announced activities into practice and reaching stated objectives
  • Accountability: exchanging relevant information with governments and other stakeholders, regular reporting
  • Participation: open and participatory in nature
  • Multi-stakeholder, i.e. including three or more stakeholders in the partnership
  • Reflecting sectoral and geographical balance
  • Integrating the three pillars of sustainable development: ecological, economic, and social
  • Resulting in technology transfer and capacity building in developing countries
  • Making a genuine, concrete, additional contribution to agreed sustainable development goals
  • Adhering to agreed plans and priorities at national level
  • Conforming to intergovernmental agreed mandates
  • Being based on predictable and sustained financial resources while not drawing funds away from other agreed mandates

These principles should be reviewed by member states and considered when discussing ways to enhance the contribution of partnerships to implementing sustainable development.

From what we have learned about partnerships in the last years and decades: Are there principles that are missing from existing agreements but would be important to include? What have we learned about how to best put these principles into practice? How can we use easily accessible and cost-effective technologies and mechanisms to implement these principles? And how can we make such lessons learned available to all governments, all parts of the UN system, and all stakeholders available so that everybody who wishes to engage in partnerships can do so most effectively?

5. Updating Existing Decisions

 Member states might like to consider taking existing resolutions on partnerships such as the ECOSOC decision from 2003 and updating them, rather than starting from scratch. An approach could be:

To refer to recent agreements,

  • To review and update principles and guidelines in order to include aspects that have been arising based on the experiences with partnerships since 2002.

5.1. Some Suggestions Trying to Bring Together the Approaches to Partnerships

Suggested enabling paragraphs could be:

Partnerships in the context of the 2030 Agenda process and its follow-up should be developed and implemented in accordance with the following criteria and guidelines; in this regard, taking note of the preliminary work undertaken on partnerships during the preparatory process for WSSD, including the Bali Guiding Principles, and the General Assembly resolution A/RES/56/76, A/RES/58/129, A/RES/60/215, A/RES/62/211, A/RES/64/223, A/RES/66/223, A/RES/68/234 and A/RES/70/224.

The High Level Political Forum should serve as the focal point for discussion on partnerships that promote sustainable development and reiterates that partnerships, as voluntary multi-stakeholder initiatives, contribute to the implementation of inter-governmental commitments in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Samoa Pathway, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, Addis Ababa Action Agenda (AAAA), the New Urban Agenda and The Future We Want.

The timelines and milestones should be based on those agreed in the Agenda 2030 process (and the Samoa Pathway, Sendai, AAAA, NUA and The Future We Want).

5.2. Possible Additions Aiming to Enhance Implementation

There have been a number of ideas that have arisen based on the experiences with partnerships since 2002. These have been captured in a number of academic studies and reflected in the reports from the two UN DESA retreats on partnerships (see references in Annex 2). These ideas are an effort to support the enhancement of practical implementation and maximize the contribution of partnerships to realizing the SDGs.

In particular, this would include addressing issues such as reporting; registration and listing on the UN SDGs partnerships website; additional guiding principles; learning and exchange; engaging and supporting.

Most of the following aspects are indeed meant to support the implementation of principles relating to partnerships that have consistently been articulated. As many believe that stronger due diligence, intensified monitoring of implementation, and wider circulation of agreed principles would increase the impact of resolutions and guidelines, many of the aspects being put forward focus on these and related aspects:

Reporting

Aiming to support the present system that the UN Division on Sustainable Development operates as regards multi-stakeholder partnerships, these could be considered:

  • All partnerships that the UN initiates to report annually by May 1st of each year to UNDESA relevant divisions.
  • All partnerships to include Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Resource-Based, With Time Based Deliverables (SMART) criteria in their registration and reporting.
  • All partnerships that are not involving the UN to report annually (similar to requirements for the Global Compact membership and NGO accreditation).
  • All partnerships will be observed using the traffic lights reporting as has been undertaken by the SIDS Partnership Framework and now DSD: Green for reporting regularly; Yellow if they have not reported within two years; Red if they have not reported within 3 years; and delisted if they have not reported for over three years.
  • An annual synthesis report to be prepared for possible comments in the HLPF Ministerial Declaration, summarizing main contributions by partnerships: which goals, which regions and countries, which sectors are engaged; main lessons learned; open questions.

Additional suggestions have been made at the two UN DESA workshops on multi-stakeholder partnerships that member states might consider. They include the following:

Registration and continued inclusion in the SDGs online platform for partnerships

  • The UN should consider monitoring partnerships that are listed on the UN web site using an early warning mechanism to ensure they do not bring the UN into disrepute. Any partnership putting the UN at reputational risk should be delisted.
  • Within the UN web site there should be a clear differentiation between voluntary initiatives and multi-stakeholder partnerships while recognizing that both contribute to delivering the global agreements.
  • The UN as a whole could adopt these criteria in their individual work on multi-stakeholder partnerships to ensure coherence within the UN family/One UN.

Guiding Principles / Compliance

  • For multi-stakeholder Partnerships that include companies: those companies must be a member of the UN Global Compact and comply with the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.

ECOSOC Partnerships Forum and other Spaces for Exchange and Learning

  • The High-level Political Forum, under the auspices of ECOSOC, should continue look at thematic partnerships linked to the sustainable development goals;
  • The HLPF could benefit from a “lessons learnt” review of partnerships by ECOSOC.
  • The ECOSOC Charter mandate also gives it the authority to regulate interaction between the United Nations and Non-Governmental Organizations which covers a range of civil society organizations including the private sector, foundations, NGOs, academia, among others. The Council is also the body that coordinates the activities of the United Nations system and as such it is uniquely situated to provide oversight of partnership initiatives or commitments in which the UN system is involved. ECOSOC would therefore set the broad parameters for partnerships that apply to the whole of the UN system.
  • The Partnership Forum in ECOSOC could be utilized to advance the principles and guidelines for partnerships and review those partnerships involving the United Nations to ensure these principles and guidelines are being applied; The UN could provide additional spaces for open exchange about partnerships, MSPs and – in particular within the Finance for Development Forum – Public Private Partnerships (PPPs).
  • Partnerships working on the same goals should consider working together where possible in a knowledge network.
  • The UN Agencies and Programmes could consider hosting Partnership Forums where they have a lead interest in a particular goal linked to their meetings dealing with the SDGs.
  • UN Agencies and programmes could consider helping to establish knowledge banks for each SDG based on the experience of MSPs and report to the HLPF on this.

Stakeholders Engaging in and Supporting Partnerships

  • Individual stakeholders and MSPs should continue to share their experiences, lessons learned, and tools, models and templates of governance mechanisms, financing models, risk management, useful tools for learning, contracting, and reviewing.
  • Governments and foundations should consider stronger support for the development and building of partnerships, including where relevant supporting capacity development; brokering and facilitation; setting up of independent secretariats; and undertaking monitoring, evaluation and learning activities.
  • Researchers should consider supporting building knowledge on MSPs and sharing it widely, particularly with those engaged in sustainable development.
  • Professional associations relevant to MSPs should engage more in the SDG process to strengthen the implementation of the SDGs (e.g. facilitators; knowledge management specialists; experts of mixed financing models from the field of social entrepreneurship).

One final thought

An interesting idea that came out of the first UNDESA workshop on MSPs (UNDESA 2016) was the idea of distinguishing between partnerships of three categories, these being:

  1. Multi-stakeholder partnerships that are led by the UN – e.g. Sustainable Energy for ALL
  2. Multi-stakeholder partnerships that the UN is involved with – e.g. GAVI (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation)
  3. Multi-stakeholder partnerships that are independent of the UN

The due diligence processes maybe be different for these different categories. Capacity building and knowledge management needs are also likely to be different and would need different approaches and mechanisms.

Finally we hope this paper helps Member States in their consideration of MSPs and the more effective delivery of MSPs in helping to realise the SDGs.

Annex 1 Global Compact Principles

One of the major initiatives in the UN on partnership with the private sector has been the Global Compact. It was first announced by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in 1999 during a speech at Davos, and launched formally as a Secretary General initiative in July 2000. The Global Compact currently has almost 8000 active corporate participants in over 140 countries. To join the Global Compact companies had to agree to ten principles that address safeguarding the environment, ensuring social inclusion, building markets and combating corruption. It has in addition become a catalyst for support within the business community for the Millennium Development Goals. The Principles are:

Human Rights

Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and

Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Labour

Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;

Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour;

Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and

Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Environment

Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges;

Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and

Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.

Anti-Corruption

Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.

The Global Compact has a Communication on Progress (COP) policy and produces an annual update as a mechanism to show accountability and transparency. Companies are required to follow this policy. Failure to do so will “result in a change in participant status and possible expulsion” (UNGC, 2014). The COP represents several important purposes: it advances transparency and accountability, it drives continued performance improvement, safeguards the integrity of the UN and the UN Global Compact and helps build a repository of corporate practices to promote dialogue and learning.

 Annex 2 Background Information and Resources

References: UN Decisions and Documents relating to MSPs[1]

UN Decisions

United Nations, 1992. Agenda 21, Chapters 24-31. New York: United Nations. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/Agenda21.pdf

2002 (July) Bali Guiding Principles https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/dsd/dsd_aofw_par/par_mand_baliguidprin.shtml

2003 (June) UN Commission Decision on Partnerships for Sustainable Development including criteria and guidelines http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/partnerships/partnerships_for_sd.pdf

2003 (July) ECOSOC Resolution 2003/61 Future programme, organization and methods of work of the Commission on Sustainable Development (Para 21-24) http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/docs/2003/resolution%202003-61.pdf

2004 (February) UNGA Resolution (58/129) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N03/502/32/PDF/N0350232.pdf?OpenElement

2005 (December) UNGA resolution (60/215) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/500/50/PDF/N0550050.pdf?OpenElement

2007 (December) UNGA resolution (62/211) Towards global partnerships https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N07/476/43/PDF/N0747643.pdf?OpenElement

2010 (March) UNGA Resolution (64/223) Towards global partnerships http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/64/223

United Nations, 2012. The Future We Want. New York: United Nations. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/733FutureWeWant.pdf2002 (January) UNGA Resolution (56/76) Towards global partnership https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/490/02/PDF/N0149002.pdf?OpenElement

2012 (March) UNGA resolution (66/223 Towards global partnerships http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=%20A/RES/66/223

2014 (February) UNGA resolution (68/234) Towards global partnerships: a principle-based approach to enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners  http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/68/234

2015 (December) UNGA resolution 70/224 Towards global partnerships: a principle-based approach to enhanced cooperation between the United Nations and all relevant partners http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/224

 UN Background Papers

Atkisson, Alan, 2015. MSPs in the Post-2015 Development Era: Sharing knowledge and expertise to support the achievement of the SDGs. New York: Paper prepared for UN DSD. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/7366Partnerships_Knowledge_BackgroundPaper_final.pdf

Beisheim, Marianne and Nils Simon, 2016. Multistakeholder partnerships for implementing the 2030 Agenda: Improving accountability – Analytical paper for the 2016 ECSOC Partnership Forum https://www.un.org/ecosoc/sites/www.un.org.ecosoc/files/files/en/2016doc/partnership-forum-beisheim-simon.pdf

Dodds, Felix, 2015. Multi-stakeholder partnerships: Making them work for the Post-2015 Development Agenda http://www.un.org/en/ecosoc/newfunct/pdf15/2015partnerships_background_note.pdf

Expert Group Meeting “Multi-stakeholder partnerships on implementing the 2030 Agenda, 2016: Improving accountability and transparency” Organized by UNDESA (February 2016) https://www.un.org/ecosoc/sites/www.un.org.ecosoc/files/files/en/2016doc/egm-summary.pdf

Hoxtell, Wade, 2016. MSPs and the 2030 Agenda – Challenges and Oversight Options – Challenges and options for oversight at the United Nations. UNDESA Expert Group meeting “Strengthening the role of Member States in the review of multi-stakeholder partnerships for implementing the 2030 Agenda (December 2016)

Seth, Nikhil, 2013. Foreword. In: Fulfilling the Rio+20 Promises: Reviewing Progress since the UN Conference on Sustainable Development. Report by Natural Resources Defense Council & Stakeholder Forum

UN Agencies and Programmes

Executive Board of the UN Development Programme and of the UN Population Fund, 2008. The UNDP accountability system: Accountability framework and oversight policy. UN Doc DP/2008/16/Rev.1, New York: United Nations. http://web.undp.org/execbrd/pdf/dp08-16Rev1.pdf

Joint Inspection Unit, 2006. Oversight Lacunae in the United Nations System. UN Doc. JIU/REP/2006/2. Geneva: United Nations. http://www.centerforunreform.org/sites/default/files/A.60.860_JIU_Report.pdf

Guidelines on a Principle-based Approach to the Cooperation between the United Nations and the Business Sector: https://business.un.org/en/documents/guidelines

Resources: Key Literature Relating to MSPs

Andonova, Liliana B. and Marc A. Levy, 2003. Franchising Global Governance. Making sense of the Johannesburg Type II Partnerships. In: O. S. Stokke and O. B. Thommessen (eds.) Yearbook of International Co-Operation on Environment and Development 2003/2004. London: Earthscan. http://graduateinstitute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/admininst/shared/doc-professors/Andonova-Levy2.pdf

Beisheim, Marianne & Nils Simon, 2016. Multi-stakeholder partnerships for implementing the 2030 Agenda: Improving accountability and transparency. Independent analytical paper commissioned by UNDESA  https://www.un.org/ecosoc/sites/www.un.org.ecosoc/files/files/en/2016doc/partnership-forum-beisheim-simon.pdf

Beisheim, Marianne and Nils Simon, 2015. Meta Governance of partnerships for sustainable development: Perspectives on how the UN could improve partnerships’ governance services in areas of limited statehood. Berlin: SWP  http://www.sfb-governance.de/publikationen/working_papers/wp68/SFB-Governance-Working-Paper-68.pdf

Brouwer, Herman and Jim Woodhill, with Minu Hemmati, Karèn Verhoosel and Simone van Vugt 2015: The MSP Guide – How to Design and Facilitate Multi-stakeholder Partnerships. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University (free download)

Hemmati, Minu, 2002. Multi-Stakeholder Processes for Governance and Sustainability – Beyond Deadlock and Conflict. London: Earthscan http://earthsummit2002.org/msp/book.html

Hemmati, M. 2015. Engagement and Communication for Implementation and Review. Contribution to UN EGM “Social Development and the Agenda 2030”, New York Oct 2015

Hemmati, Minu and Felix Dodds, 2016. High-quality Multi-stakeholder Partnerships for Implementing the SDGs. New Frontiers Publishing, August 2016

Hemmati, Minu and Francois Rogers, 2015. Multi-stakeholder Engagement and Communications for Sustainability. Beyond Sweet-Talk and Blanket Criticism – Towards Successful Implementation. London: CatalySD

Hemmati, Minu and Robert Whitfield, 2003. The Future Role of Partnerships In the Follow-up to Johannesburg. Suggestions For Effective Mechanisms at the National, Regional and International Level. London: Stakeholder Forum, April 2003

International Civil Society Centre, 2014. MSPs: Building Blocks for Success (by Pattberg & Widerberg). Berlin: ICSC https://icscentre.org/downloads/14_10_02_Multi-Stakeholder_Partnerships.pdf

Martens, Jens, 2007. Multi-stakeholder Partnerships – Future models of Multilateralism? Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/04244.pdf

OECD, 2015. Development Co-operation Report 2015: Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/dcr-2015-en

Stakeholder Forum, 2013. Fulfilling the Rio+20 Promises: Reviewing Progress since the UN Conference on Sustainable Development. London: Stakeholder Forum http://www.stakeholderforum.org/sf/fileadmin/files/rio-20-report.pdf

 

[1] collated by Felix Dodds (Tellus Institute) & Minu Hemmati (MSP Institute), 2017

 

 

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